Technology advancements in spinal endoscopy for staged management of painful spine conditions

Friedrich Tieber, Kai-Uwe Lewandrowski


The development of endoscopy, in general, reflects the medical history of the last 200 years in an extraordinary way. It is so extraordinary because endoscopy expanded into almost all fields of medicine, including ENT, urology, gynecology, orthopedics, and neurosurgery.