Now is the time to standardize the terminology of full-endoscopic spine surgery

Hisashi Koga


Full-endoscopic spine surgery (FESS) is a minimally invasive technique in modern spine surgery. Historically, this technique was developed after percutaneous nucleotomy, which was introduced by Hijikata et al. in 1975 from the viewpoint of the operative approach [transforaminal approach (TFA)] (1).

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