Article Abstract

Trends in cervical disc arthroplasty and revisions in the Medicare database

Authors: Timothy R. Niedzielak, Bijan J. Ameri, Blaze Emerson, Rushabh M. Vakharia, Martin W. Roche, John P. Malloy IV

Abstract

Background: Due to increased postoperative complications with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), there has been an increasing interest in the use of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA). Advancements in prosthetic designs and techniques have improved patient reported outcome measurements and minimized revision rates. There is a paucity in the literature regarding recent trends in CDA utilization and revision rates. The purpose of this study was to determine annual primary and revision CDA trends with the use of an administrative database.
Methods: A retrospective review from 2005–2014 was performed using the Medicare Standard Analytical Files from the PearlDiver supercomputer (PearlDiver Technologies, Fort Wayne, IN, USA). Patients who underwent primary CDA were queried using International Classification of Disease, ninth revision (ICD-9) and current procedural terminology (CPT) code 84.62 and 22856, respectively. Revision CDAs were queried using ICD-9 procedure code 84.66. Primary outcomes of this study included annual primary procedures, annual revision incidence (RI), and additional demographic data such as age, gender, geographic location, Charlson-comorbidity index (CCI); in addition to length of stay (LOS), cost, and reimbursement.
Results: The query returned 2,016 and 517 primary CDA and revision CDA procedures were performed in the Medicare database, respectively. The data showed that the CAGR of primary and revision CDA procedures to be 20.54% and 5.84% (P<0.001), respectively. RI and RB demonstrated a CAGR of −12.22% and −9.61%, respectively. Patients younger than the age of 65 represented the majority of the patients undergoing this procedure. Demographically, primary and revision CDAs were found highest in the South.
Conclusions: The data demonstrates a high rate of annual growth in CDA utilization (20.54%) and revision CDA (5.84%), indicating there is an increase demand for CDA in the United States. Compared to ACDF, patients who undergo CDA have improved patient reported outcome measurements and lower rates of postoperative complications.