Efficacy and complications of the use of Gardner-Wells Tongs: a systematic review
We conducted a thorough review of the literature to examine the risks and complications associated with the use of Gardner-Wells Tongs (GWT). Twenty-three articles were included in this review for final analysis. One article reported a 37.5% (6/16) incidence rate of minor complications with the usage of GWTs, which included pin loosening, asymmetrical pin positioning, and superficial infections. Various cases reported more serious yet rare complications, including perforation of the skull, brain abscesses, and neurovascular damage. Overall, the complication rate is low, and often associated with only minor and transient complications, which can be easily managed. Therefore, we conclude that GWT are safe and effective, with only rare, more serious complications reported in the literature.