Review of Techniques
Robotic versus freehand S2 alar iliac fixation: in-depth technical considerations
Achieving fixation and fusion across the lumbosacral junction has been a challenge for spinal deformity surgeons ever since the development of instrumentation. The S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) trajectory has been introduced as a method of pelvic fixation to decrease strain on S1 screws. The S2AI screws differ in several ways from traditional iliac screws. The trajectory of these screws helps avoid the use of offset connectors due to the screws alignment with the proximal pedicle screw instrumentation. Current literature shows that S2AI screws are effective with low complication rates, but the path of these screws is intimately associated with major neural and vascular structures. Use of robotic guidance to obtain the correct trajectory has been shown to be both safe and effective in obtaining proper trajectory of S2AI screws with over 95% accuracy. Herein, we report on the technical considerations and radiographic outcomes surrounding robotic and freehand insertion of S2AI screws.