The evolution of interlaminar endoscopic spine surgery
Due to the aging population, patients required spinal surgery for degenerative spondylopathy is increasing. With the advent of surgical instruments and techniques, minimally invasive spine surgery is prevalent worldwide. Besides microscopic techniques, endoscopic spine surgery has gotten attention gradually in this surgical field for the past two decades. There are two essential approaches developed currently, including transforaminal and interlaminar approach. These innovative equipment and skills promote the progression of endoscopic surgery from discectomy to decompression of spinal stenosis. Meanwhile, they also opened up the application of endoscopic surgery in a complicated situation. From the perspective of emerging technologies and techniques, the authors will review the evolution and describe the prospects of the interlaminar endoscopic spine surgery (IESS).