Micro-anatomical structures of the lumbar intervertebral foramen for full-endoscopic spine surgery: review of the literatures

Hisaaki Uchikado, Yasuhiko Nishimura, Gohsuke Hattori, Yukoh Ohara


Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) is a minimally invasive spinal surgical technique. PELD can be performed via 2 routes, transforaminal (TF) or interlaminar. The TF approach is a well-established modality in the treatment of patients with herniated lumbar discs. This technique makes the most of the space within the intervertebral foramen where, as Kambin claimed, the safe approach to the lesion is possible. Knowledge of the lumbar artery with its branches and various ligaments of anatomies of the intervertebral foramen are needed to perform successful surgeries and to reduce complications.

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