Future directions—development of a new technology

Hisashi Koga


Discovering a new era in the field of surgery can be challenging. Any advances in the field should not cause a disadvantage to the patients. In the very least, any new procedure should not have an operative outcome inferior to that of the previous standard procedures. Several investigators have already published the outcomes of full-endoscopic lumbar interbody fusion (FELIF) (1-5). However, at the moment FELIF seems to be a premature procedure for several reasons.

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