The use of minimally invasive surgery in spine trauma: a review of concepts
Traumatic injuries to the spine can be common in the setting of blunt trauma and delayed diagnosis can have a deleterious effect on patients’ health. The goals of treatment in managing spine trauma are prevention of neurological injury, providing stability to the spine, and correcting post-traumatic deformity. Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) techniques are an alternative to open spine surgery for treatment of spine fractures. MISS is also a viable treatment in the setting of damage control orthopedics, when patients with multiple traumatic injuries may be unable to tolerate a traditional open approach. MISS techniques have been used in the treatment of unstable fractures with or without spinal cord injury, flexion and extension-distraction injuries, and unstable sacral fractures. Traditional open surgeries have been associated with increased blood loss, longer operative times, and a higher risk for surgical site infection (SSI). MISS techniques have the potential to reduce open approach-associated morbidity, and improve postoperative care and rehabilitation. MISS techniques for spine trauma are an indispensable option in the treatment armamentarium of spine surgeons.