Chronic opioid use after spine surgery: what is the prescription for reducing opioid dependence?

Kamilla Esfahani, Bhiken I. Naik, Lauren K. Dunn


In recent years, there is increasing recognition of the risks of perioperative opioids including acute tolerance and persistent opioid use. Further complicating this issue, is the non-scientific prescription of opioids at discharge which significantly increases the risks of unused opioids in the community and diversion. Investigating perioperative factors associated with persistent opioid use is critical and timely due to the current opioid epidemic.