Article Abstract

Baseline mental status predicts happy patients after operative or non-operative treatment of adult spinal deformity

Authors: Bassel G. Diebo, Frank A. Segreto, Cyrus M. Jalai, Dennis Vasquez-Montes, Cole A. Bortz, Samantha R. Horn, Nicholas J. Frangella, Max I. Egers, Eric Klineberg, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage, Frank Schwab, Peter G. Passias, International Spine Study Group

Abstract

Background: The study is a retrospective review of a multi-institutional database, aiming to determine predictors of non-depressed, satisfied adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients with good self-image at 2-year follow-up (2Y). ASD significantly impacts a patients’ psychological status. Following treatment, little is known about predictors of satisfied patients with high self-image and mental status.
Methods: Inclusion: primary ASD pts >18 y/o with complete 2Y follow-up. Non-depressed [Short Form 36-mental component score (SF36-MCS) >42], satisfied patients (SRS22-satisfaction >3) with good self-image (SR22-self-image >3) at 2Y were isolated (happy). Happy and control patients were propensity-matched by baseline and 2Y leg pain, Charlson, frailty, and radiographic measures for the operative (OP) and non-operative cohorts (NOP). Health related quality of life (HRQL), surgical and radiographic metrics were compared. Regression models identified predictors of happy patients. Thresholds were calculated using area under the curve (AUC) and 95%CI.
Results: Of 480 patients, 94 OP (happy: 47 vs. control: 47) and 92 NOP (46 each) reached inclusion. At baseline, groups had similar age, gender, Oswestry disability index (ODI) (OP: 39.1 vs. 37.5, NOP: 17.7 vs. 19.7) and SF36-physical component score (PCS) (OP: 33.5 vs. 35, NOP: 48 vs. 44.7). Despite similar (P>0.05) surgeries, length of stay (LOS), and radiographic outcomes between OP happy and control groups, happy had less peri-operative complications (31.9% vs. 57.4%, P=0.13), better 2Y ODI (17.8 vs. 30), SRS22 component, total, and SF36 scores (P<0.05). NOP happy patients also exhibited better 2Y ODI (13.2 vs. 22.1), SRS22 component, total, and SF36 scores (P<0.05). Baseline SRS-mental (OR: 2.199, AUC: 0.617, cutoff: 2.5) and ODI improvement (OR: 1.055, AUC: 0.717, cutoff: >12) predicted happy OP patients, while baseline SRS-self-image (OR: 5.195, AUC: 0.740, cutoff: 3.5) and ODI improvement (OR: 1.087, AUC: 0.683, cutoff: >9) predicted happy NOP patients.
Conclusions: Baseline mental-status, self-image and ODI improvement significantly impact long-term happiness in ASD patients. Despite equivalent management and alignment outcomes, operative and non-operative happy patients had better 2Y disability scores. Management strategies aimed at improving baseline mental-status, perception-of-deformity, and maximizing ODI may optimize treatment outcomes.

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