Article Abstract

Radiological factors affecting post-operative global coronal balance in Lenke 5 C scoliosis

Authors: Ajoy Prasad Shetty, Subramani Suresh, Siddharth N. Aiyer, Rishi Kanna, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran


Background: Lenke 5 C curves are frequently associated with clinically and radiological coronal imbalance. Appropriate selection of proximal and distal levels of fusion is essential to ensure good coronal balance (CB). We aimed to evaluate radiological factors associated with (I) global CB in the early post-operative period; (II) late decompensation of CB; and (III) favourable spontaneous correction of CB on long term follow up.
Methods: Twenty-three Lenke type 5C scoliosis cases treated with selective posterior lumbar instrumentation were retrospectively evaluated. Pre-operative, early post-operative and late post-operative (>2 years) whole length radiographs were analysed. Cobb’s angle, lumbar lordosis, coronal imbalance, lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) tilt and translation and upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) tilt and translation were measured. The proximal and distal fusion levels were noted and correlated with post-operative CB.
Results: There were 21 females and 2 males with a mean follow up of 36 months. The mean pre-operative cobb angle was 55°±13.26°, which corrected to 14.7°±8.84° and was maintained on follow up. Eight patients had early post-operative coronal imbalance with spontaneous resolution seen in six cases on long term follow-up. At final follow-up, four cases had coronal imbalance (persistent imbalance since early postoperative period =2; late decompensation =2). In cases with early imbalance 5/8 cases had a pre-operative LIV tilt of ≥25°. All four patients with coronal imbalance at final follow-up had pre-operative LIV tilt ≥25°. Radiographic parameters which correlated with post-operative coronal imbalance were pre-operative LIV tilt (r=0.64, P=0.001), pre-operative LIV translation (r=0.696, P<0.001), pre-operative UIV translation (r=0.44, P=0.030), post-operative LIV tilt (r=0.804, P<0.001), and post-operative UIV tilt (r=0.62, P=0.001).
Conclusions: In Lenke 5C scoliosis, a pre-operative LIV tilt ≥25° significantly correlates with postoperative global coronal imbalance. Increasing UIV tilt may be a factor that accounts for improvement of CB in late follow-up period.